Environmental Health Risks and Benefits of the use of Mosquito Coils:- The diseases spread by mosquitoes are Dengue, Malaria, Zika virus, West Nile virus, and Chikungunya virus. There are 2.7 million deaths each passing year caused by these diseases that are spread by mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Mosquitoes are one of the deadliest animals in the world. There are up to 500 million people infected every year. 90% of these infected patients are from Africa.
Malaria is a native in 91 countries of over 40% population at risk of these diseases. There are more than 2500 species of mosquitoes all over the world except Antarctica because they cannot bear temperatures below 20 degrees Celcius.
Mosquitoes are very favorable to new environments World Health Organisation(WHO) recommends mosquito prevention methods like the use of proper nets for the prevention of insecticides and indoor spraying. But as per recent reports, many mosquito species includes Anepheoles evolve to resist many widely used insecticides and have also changed their feeding habits to avoid nets and insecticides sprayed environments.
Although people are using Mosquito coils to a greater extent, it proves to as an efficient way to prevent people from mosquitoes. The global market value of mosquito repellents estimates at approx. 4.1 billion US dollars in 2021. It forecasts that these numbers cross 6 billion US dollars by 2027.
In the United States, these numbers are estimated to be at 860 million dollars by 2021. 43% of the world population using mosquito coil regularly. The mosquito’s repellents consist of insecticide mixtures, filler for ex sawdust, stabilizer, and sometimes a fragrance spray which is heated to create vapor mixture of these chemicals which helps to repel or kill mosquitoes.
A mosquito coil is generally able to provide 8 hrs of continuous small amount vaporizing that prevents its surrounding from mosquitoes. It produces some toxic gases like CO, SO2, NO2, and other particulate matter that causes health problems. The gases used in these coils lead to environmental health depletion, one of which is lung cancer.
A researcher found out that 50% of lung cancer patients in Taiwan not infected through smoking cigarettes that leads them to lung cancer but with mosquito’s repellents. The household of Taiwan regularly uses mosquito coils thrice a week w causes an increment of these toxic gases in the local atmosphere hence leads to an increase in health disease.
Test Performed on Mosquito Coil
In this test, there are five different types of mosquito coils uses from various brands according to their price type to conclude the environmental harmfulness that is caused by these mosquito coils. Below is the concluding test outcome from this test:
- Sample and rearing of mosquitoes:
The Anopheles larvae are sampled and placed in a larva bowl to inspect and sort apart anopheles from other species in the sample. The environment is maintained the same from where it selects to maintaining the larval mortality. The larva sample maintains at 75 to 8- degrees of relativity humidity and fish meals provide to feed the larva. The sample was gone through four stages. Now it is fed with 10% sugar, and the adult female Anopheles mosquitoes sort out from the male ones.
- Mortality test of mosquitoes:
The female mosquitoes Anopheles are placed five in each experiment chamber that is wooden based then each brand coils are placed separately in these chambers. At the time of ending the mosquito coils, the fallen mosquitoes were counted and recorded. The percentage of corrected mortality calculates using Abbott’s formula.
Corrected Mortality(%) : Treatment Mortality(%)- Control Mortality(%) / 100- Control Mortality(%)
Gaseous emissions from mosquito coils
1. Carbon Monoxide(CO)
The average CO emissions of mosquito coils are 2.7, 2.82, and 3.8 mg/m3 in open three different size rooms. In closed surroundings, these readings are 13.18,17.29, and 12.44 mg/m3 means it increases with 4-6 levels in comparison to open surroundings. These readings are more precious in less outside environment interaction. These lead to an increment of CO2 in a closed room exceeding the WHO guideline that is 10 mg/m3 that leads to the increment of health issues
2. Total volatile organic compounds(TVOC)
The total number of volatile organic compounds volume in the air usually refers to as total volatile organic compounds. The readings of TVOC depend on the ventilation of the room. If there is proper ventilation, then the levels are in the range of 0.06, 0.04, and 0.05 mg/m3 in 2 hours of coil burning. If the room does not ventilate, then the TVOC counts were 0.14, 0.19, and 0.12 gm/m3.
3. Sulfur dioxide(SO2)
SO2 associate with the use of fuels, including charcoal, firewood, and kerosene, mostly in developing countries. The study revealed that the burning of a mosquito coil, when used regularly, could contribute to the source of SO2 exposure factors in the indoor environment. The SO2 concentrations in three different room sizes in ventilated rooms averaged 0.25, 0.22, and 0.22 mg/m3, respectively.
4. Nitrogen dioxide(NO2)
The NO2 emission readings are slightly different from rooms which have proper ventilation to the room which doesn’t have ventilation facility. The NO2 concentration in the rooms with appropriate ventilation is 0.08 mg/m3. When the room doesn’t have enough ventilation, then these ratings are 0.06 and 0.07 mg/m3.
5. Particulate matter
The concentration of Particulate matter is 0,28, 0,39, and 0,24 mg/m3 for three different room sizes in an average of 8 hours in poor ventilation conditions. The concentration of Particulate matter in the respective rooms was reduced to 0.06, 0.03, and 0.06 mg/m3 when the experiment repeats under natural ventilation. The decrease in Particulate matter was 0.05 in each case with ventilation.
Overall benefits of using Mosquito Coils
- The key benefit of using mosquito coils is its efficiency against mosquitoes. And it is affordable as compared to other alternatives that can utilize as mosquito repellents.
- The outcome of the study shows that the mosquito coils don’t produce more than 70% mortality that is not sufficient for potential mosquitoes. These mosquito coils contain other ingredients that enhance the mortality rate.
- Although the study states that mosquito coils also cause environmental health issues but for ventilated and improper ventilated area mortality rates are 1.4X10-8 and 6.6X10-8 respectively that means only two died in 100,000,000 persons in a properly ventilated room and only 7 per 100000000 persons in poorly ventilated surroundings.
- The risk from mosquito coils is an average of 1 per 100000000 persons that is acceptable in comparison to deaths because of mosquito bites.
The mosquito mortality is not more than 70% that is generated by mosquito coils. It is not sufficient over mosquito bites that much. But, it repels mosquitoes to some extent. The use of these mosquito repellents also increases toxic gases in the environment that leads to the risk of health issues. The conclusion is that the mosquito coil’s efficiency decrease when room size increased. The toxic gases existence as CO, SO2, NO2 and other particulate matter also found in the environment where these mosquito coils use. However, the concentration of these gases is low as 1.4X10 power -8 and 6.6X10 is to power -8 for ventilated and poorly ventilated surroundings.